Elderly in China

In China, the population over age 60 has reached 180 million. It is predicted that the number will be increasing every year by 5-8 million. Beijing, for example, has the number of elderly people accounting for more than 15% of the city population. In the meantime, due to birth control (one child policy) starting in 1978 – together with the fact that more and more young people are going abroad for work or studies – the number of households with only elderly people is increasing. Senior citizens living alone have become the main characteristic of the aging situation in cities such as Beijing and Shanghai.

The retirement age normally is 50 (for women) or 55 (for men) in China, which is relatively young comparing to the western countries. What do they do after they retire? Most elderly have to provide day care for their grandchildren since maternal leave is only 3-4 months, while kids could only start going to day care at the age of three. In fact, the elderly are taking care of their grandchildren day and night during working days and the kids only stay with their parents during weekends. So when the elderly are enjoying the company of grandchildren, they have to make efforts to take care of them too.

The neighborhood community plays a key role in daily life for the elderly, especially in urban areas. The community center is an ideal place for elderly living in the same neighborhood to gather together and play chess, exercise, etc. Recently, these communities would also be responsible for the day care services (i.e. meal delivery) for the elderly who lose self-care abilities and ensure health checkups of the elderly in the neighborhood.

Transportation is a dilemma, as it is both easy and hard for the elderly. Starting with Shanghai, several other regions such as Sichuan, Lanzhou, Hangzhou, etc. allow elderly people aged above 70 to take public transportation for free. However, if they wish to take a flight, a health certificate is required by most aviation companies.

Monthly pension is normally 1000-2000 CNY (157-315 USD). However, elderly people feel insecure due to low coverage of public medical insurance (from the government). So Chinese people generally save for retirement, meanwhile support from the family is also expected especially when they are sick in the hospital – since usually medical insurance is not enough to cover the costs. Furthermore, nursing service is normally expected from family members due to Chinese tradition and unsatisfying nursing services provided by public hospitals/nursing homes.

Nursing homes are more acceptable by the elderly now than they used to be. In the past, elderly going to nursing homes has been looked down upon, since normally only solitary aged individuals would have to go there and the service from nursing homes was poor. However, due to the trend of an oncoming inverted pyramid within the population – and the improvement of service – going to nursing homes is more acceptable by the elderly nowadays. By interviewing one private nursing home owner, it was observed that compensation on the nursing homes for the elderly requires several criteria. Non-profit nursing homes are either hard to get in or equipped with poor service – with 6-8 beds in one room and one nurse for 15-20 people, while private nursing homes would have rooms with single bed available. There are also newly built public nursing homes these years with better conditions, but it could take the elderly years in the queue system to get a spot. Another issue mentioned by the interviewee was the labor system. Running nursing homes needs employees take night shifts. However, the nursing home labor system doesn’t share the same one as the hospital’s, which has made the management of employees difficult.

The Fifth Social Welfare Institute is one of the best nursing homes in Beijing. It has 230 beds in total and the normal price is 1800 CNY per month per bed. It is equipped with designated medical care (which could be reimbursed), as well as different kinds of activity rooms for dancing, playing pingpong, calligraphy, reading, etc. The reasonable price and complete setting of the nursing home attracts lots of elderly people, however, the waiting time to get in could be years.

In short, after early retirement, the elderly in China rely on pension for the expenses on daily life. While when they get sick or more senior, support from the family will be needed. They enjoy having fun with the people at the same age in the neighborhood or in nursing homes. The number of nursing homes in China is far from enough due to the rapid aging population. Though, the bed occupancy rate might be low in private nursing homes. More affordable nursing homes with upgraded and reimbursable medical services are definitely required for the elderly population in China.

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About Rongrong Zhang

I was born and raised in Shanghai, China. I have a solid pharmaceutical background from professional education as well as from working as a pharmacist for 5 years. Combined with my Masters degree of Bioentrepreneurship in Karolinska Institutet (Sweden), I am equipped with knowledge, skills and experience to excel in the life sciences industry. I am currently based in Sweden working with marketing due to my great interest in the Chinese health care market and elderly care. I continuously seek to sharpen my skills and improve my experience in the life sciences field.

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